For Buildings/Bridges  
For Buildings/Bridges
Properties of Construction Material change from place to place. Sometimes they may affect the strength and durability of the Structure, based on their Engineering Properties like Grain size, Specific Gravity, Flakiness, Elongation, etc. of Aggregates. However, the Compressive Strength of Cement also gets reduced on its defective storage for large durations in godowns before it being used at the Site. Hence, it is required to confirm the physical properties of Cement well in advance before its usage in Construction Work. Another reason by virtue of which the Compressive Strength and Durability of Concrete quite often gets reduced is due to excess/less quantity of Water Cement ratio being used in its preparation. Whereas, the presence of soluble salts in Water used in Construction Work may also damage the Building after certain lapse of Construction Time. Therefore, it is necessary to check / test the materials being used in construction for their inherent properties before starting the Construction Work as per various relevant IS standards.
Hence, the need arises for proper Quality Control Tests like Cement Concrete Mix Design, etc. being done for various Civil Engineering Structures for their Safe Design.
For Roads
The materials available for road construction are found to possess varying properties from location to location and their source, which in turn decide on the quality of road constructed. In order to assure and guarantee the quality of road work, the testing needs arise. Therefore, properties of all individual constituents used in Road Construction may generally be tested for their engineering properties so as to ensure proper stable roads having larger duration of their life time conforming to their stability requirements, density etc. as per codal provisions (mainly MOSRT&H specifications). Hence, the need arises for proper quality control checks like Bituminous Mix Design being done for all type of roads which shall include Design for Bituminous Macadam (BM), Dense Bituminous Macadam (DBM), Mix Seal Surfacing (MSS), Semi Dense Bituminous Concrete (SDBC) and Bituminous Concrete (BC), etc.
Tests for Aggregates
1. Sieve Analysis
2. Specific Gravity
3. Bulk Density
4. Water Absorption
5. Surface Water
6. Crushing Value
7. Impact Value
8. Darkness & Elongation Index
9. Soundness
10. Coating & Stripping of Bitumin Aggregate Mixture
11. Deleterious Materials and Organic Impurities


List of Indian Standards for testing Aggregates as per
IS : 2386 ( Part I to VIII ) 1963
Part I - Particle Size and Shape
(a) Sieve Analysis
(b) Material Finer than 75 micron
(c) Flakiness Index
(d) Elongation Index
(e) Angularity Number
Part II - Estimation of Deleterious Materials and Organic Impurities
(a) Clay Lumps
(b) Clay Fine Silt
(c) Light Weight Pieces
(d) Soft Particles
(e) Organic Impurities
Part III - Specific Gravity, Density, Voids, Abs orption and Bulking
(a) Specific Gravity and Water Absorption
(b) Bulk Density and Voids
(c) Bulking of Fine Aggregate
(d)Surface Moisture in Fine Aggregate
Part IV - Mechanical Properties
(a) Aggregate Crushing Value
(b) 10 % Fine Value
(c) Aggregate Impact Value
(d)Aggregate Abrasion Value
(e) Polished Stone Value
(f) Crushing Strength
Part V - Soundness
Part VI - Mortar Making Properties of Fine Aggregate
Part VII - Alkali Aggregate Reactivity
Part VIII – Petrographic Examination>


Tests for Bricks
1. Measurement and Quality
2. Water Absorption
3. Efflorescence
4. Compressive Strength
List of Indian Standards for Testing of Bricks
IS : 3495-1976 - Method of test for Burnt Clay Building Bricks
IS : 1077-1976 - Specification for common Burnt Clay Building Bricks . 
Test for Cement

A. Physical Tests

1. Fineness
2. Soundness
3. Consistency
4. Setting Time - Initial and Final
5. Compressive Strength

B. Chemical Analysis

1. Ratio of percentage of line to percentage of silica, alumina and iron oxide.
2. Ratio of percentage of alumina to that of iron oxide
3. Insoluble residue, percent by mass
4. Total Sulphur content calculated as Sulphuric Anhydride (SO3), percent by mass.
5. Total loss on Ignition
List of Indian Standards for Testing of Cement


IS : 4031-1968 - Method of Physical test for Hydraulic Cement
(a) Fineness by Dry Sieving
(b) Specific Surface of Cement
(c) Soundness
(d) Consistency of Standard Cement Paste
(e) Initial and Final Setting Time
(f) Compressive Strength
(g) Compressive Strength of Masonary Cement
(h) Compressive and Transverse Strength of Plastic Mortar
(i) Heat of Hydration of Low Heat Portland Cement
(j) Drying Shrinkage of Portland Pozzolona Cement
(k) Specific Gravity of Hydraulic Cement
(l)Air Content of Cement Mortar
(m)Water Retentivity of Masonary Cement
IS : 4032-1968 - Method of Chemical Analysis test for Hydraulic Cement
(a) Sampling
(b) Reproducibility of Results
(c) Chemical Analysis of Hydraulic Cement other than Portland Slag Cement and Portland Pozzolona Cement
(d) Determination of free lime in Portland Cement
(e) Chemical analysis of Portland Slag Cement
(f) Chemical analysis of Portland Pozzolona Cement
(g) Pozzolanacity Test for Portland Pozzolona Cement
(h) Slaining Test for Masonry cement ( Determination of Water soluble Alkali)
IS : 269-1989 - Ordinary Portland Cement 33 Grade
IS : 8112-1989 - Ordinary Portland Cement 43 Grade
IS : 12269-1989 - Ordinary Portland Cement 53 Grade
IS : 435-1989 - Portland Slag Cement
IS : 1489(Part I)1991 - Portland Pozzolona Cement Specification
Part I Fly Ash based
IS : 1489(Part 2)1991 - Portland Pozzolona Cement Specification
Part 2 Calcined Clay based


Tests of Cement Concrete
A. Compressive Strength
B. Concrete Mix Design . 
List of Indian Standards for testing Cement Concrete


IS :1199-1959 - Method of Method of Sampling and Analysis of Concrete
(a) Sampling of Fresh concrete in the field
(b) Securing and preparing Test Specimens from hardened Concrete
(c) Test For Workability
(i) Slump Test
(ii) Compacting Factor Test
(iii) Flow of cement concrete by the use of the flow table
(iv) Consistency of Concrete by VEE-BEE Consistometre
(d) Analysis of Freshly Mixed Concrete
(e) Determination of Weight per cubic metre, yield, Cement Factor And Air content of Freshly Mixed Concrete
(f) Air content of Freshly Mixed Concrete by the Pressure Method
(g) Cement Content of Hardened Portland Cement Concrete
(h) Determination of Changes in Length on Drying and Wetting ( Initial Drying Shrinkage, Drying Shrinkage, Moisture Movement
IS:516-1959 - Method of test for Strength in Concrete
IS : 456-1978 - Plain and Reinforced Concrete
Section 1 - General
Section 2 - Material, Workmanship, Inspection and Testing
Section 3 - General Design Requirements
Section 4 - Special Design Requirements for Structural Members and systems
Section 5 - Structural Design ( Limit State Method )
Section 6 - Structural Design ( Working Stress Method )
IS: 10262-1982 :- Recommended Guidelines for Concrete Mix Design
IS : 01-1964 :- Method of Test for Ready Mixed Points and Enamels
IS : 1727-1967 :- Method of Test for Pozzolanic Materials
Tests of Water
For construction purposes as well as for drinking purposes etc. 1. Chlorides
2. Sulphates
3. Organic Matter
4. Inorganic Matter
5. Suspended Solids
6. Ph value
Indian Standard for testing Water for construction purposes
IS: 456-1978 - Plain and Reinforced Concrete (revised in the Year 2000)
Tests for Bitumen
1. Specific Gravity
2. Penetration
3. Softening Point
4. Flash Point and Power Point
5. Water Content
6. Loss on Heating
7. Solubility in Carbon Di Sulphide
8. Marshall Stability
List of Indian Standards for Bitumen Testing
IS : 1201-1958 - Sampling
IS : 1202-1958 -Specific Gravity
IS : 1203-1958 - Penetration
IS : 1204-1958 - Residue of Specified Penetration
IS : 1205-1958 - Softening Point
IS : 1206-1958 - Viscosity
IS : 1207-1958 - Equivisions Temperature Viscosity
IS : 1208-1958 – Ductility
IS : 1209-1958 - Flash Point and Fire Point
IS : 1210-1958 -Float Test
IS : 1211-1958 - Water Content ( Deam and Stark Method )
IS : 1212-1958 - Loss on Heating
IS : 1213-1958 - Distillation Test
IS : 1214-1958 -Matter Insoluble in Benzene
IS : 1215-1958 - Matter Insoluble in Toluene
IS : 1216-1958 - Solubility in Carbon Di Sulphide
IS : 1217-1958 - Mineral Matter ( ASH )
IS : 1218-1958 - Phenols
IS : 1219-1958 -Naphthalene
IS : 1220-1958 - Volatile Matter Content
IS : 73 -1961 - Specification For Paving Bitum
List of Important IRC Specifications
IRC: 5-1985 Standard specifications & code of practice for road bridges, section I general features of design (sixth revision)
IRC: 6-1985 Standard specification & code of practice for road bridges, section II loads and stresses (third revision)
IRC : 15-1981 Standard specifications & code of practice for construction of concrete roads (second revision)
IRC: 18-1985 design criteria for prestressed concrete road bridges (post-tensioned concrete)
IRC: 19-1977 Standard specifications and code of practice for water bound macadam (full grout)
IRC : 20-1966 Recommended practice for bituminous penetration macadam (full grout)
IRC : 21-1987 Standard specifications and code of practice for road bridges, section III cement concrete (plain and reinforced) (second revision)
IRC : 22-1986 Standard specifications and code of practice for road bridges, section VI composite construction (first revision)
IRC : 36-1970 Recommended practice for the construction of earth embankments for road works
IRC : 37-1984 Guidelines for the design of flexible pavements (first revision)
IRC : 40-1970 Standard specifications and code of practice for road bridges, section IV brick, stone and block masonry
IRC : 45-1972 Recommendations for estimating the resistance of soil below the maximum scour level in the design of well foundations of bridges
IRC : 49-1973 Recommended practice for the pulverization of black cotton soil for lime
IRC : 56-1973 Recommended practice for the treatment of embankment slopes for erosion control
IRC : 58-1988 Guidelines for the design of rigid pavements for highways (first revision)
IRC : 73-1980 Geometric design standards for rural (non-urban) highways
IRC : 78-1983 Standard specifications and code of practice for road bridges, section VII foundation and substructure (first revision)
IRC : 81-1981 Tentative guidelines for strengthening of flexible road pavements using Benkelman Beam Deflection Techniques (BBDT)
IRC : 86-1983 Geometric design standards for urban roads in plains
List of Important IRC Special Publications
IRC:SP:11-1988 Handbook of Quality Control for Construction of Roads and Runways (Second Revision)
IRC:SP:13-1973 Standard specification & code of practice for road bridges, section II loads and stresses (third revision)
IRC:SP:18-1978 Manual for Highways Bridges Maintenance and Inspection
IRC:SP:19-1978 Manual for Survey, Investigation and Preparation of Road Projects
IRC:SP:20-1979 Manual for Route Location, Design, Construction and Maintenance of Rural Roads (Other District Roads & Village Roads)
Ministry of Shipping, Road, Transport Highways Publications


MOSRTH Specifications for Roads and Bridge Work, 2001 (Fourth Revision)


(i) Suitability for Construction Purposes
(ii) Drinking purposes.
Marble/Kota Stone
Water Absorption, Specific Gravity, Hardness (Mho’s Scale)
Sand Stone
Water Absorption, Transverse Strength
Cement concrete/chequered Tiles
IS:1237, IS:13801
Wet Transverse Strength, Water Absorption, Abrasion Value, Dimensions
5. Glazed Tiles/Ceramic Tiles
IS:777, IS:13754, IS:13756,
IS:13753, IS:13755
Water Absorption, Crazing, Impact and Chemical Resistance
6. Particle Board/MDF
Density, Moisture Content, Water Absorption after 2h soaking and 20h soaking, Swelling due to general absorption after 24h soaking (Av. increase in thickness and length), Swelling due to Surface absorption after 2h soaking of one face (Av. increase in thickness) Modulus of Rupture/Modulus of Elasticity in Bending/Tensile Strength Perpendicular to Surface/Tensile Parallel to Surface/Screw Withdrawl Test.
7. Prelaminated Particle Board
Density, Variation in density, Water Absorption after 2h & 24h, Swelling after 2h, Moisture content, Tensile strength perpendicular to surface, Tensile strength perpendicular to surface after Cyclic test, Modulus of Rupture, Screw withdrawl test, Resistance to steam crack, cigarette burn & stain.


Timber Panelled and Glazed Shutters
(Door Shutters)
Slamming Test, Impact Indentation Test, Shock Resistance Test, Resistance to Misuse test, Resistance to Buckling Test, Local Planeness Test & Screw Holding Test etc.
9. PVC Shutter
Slamming Test, Impact Indentation Test, Shock Resistance Test, Resistance to Misuse test & Resistance to Buckling Test etc.
10. Flush Door/Cup Board Shutters
Knife Test, End Immersion Test, Glue Adhesion Test, Slamming Test.
11. Ply Wood
(i) Moisture content
(ii) Glue Shear in Dry state
    a) Adhesion of Piles
b) Glue Shear Strength
    (iii) Water Resistance
    a) Glue Shear after Boiling
b) Adhesion of Piles
    (iv) Tensile Strength
    (v) Modulus of Elasticity
12. Wood
IS:287- IS:401
(i) Moisture Content
(ii) Chemical Testing of Preservatives
    (iii) Identification of Wood
13. Block Board
Dimension Changes Caused by Humidity, Resistance to Water, Adhesion of Plies
14. Aluminium Section
Thichkness of Anodic Coating
15. Galvanised Steel Sheets
(Plain & Corrugated) IS:277
Mass of Coating
16. G.I. Pipes
Galvanising, Wt./metre, Wall Thickness and Outside Dia
17. G.I. Barbed wire
Wt./metre, Dia, Pitch of Barbs, Tensile Strength, Breaking Load, Galvanising
18. TOR/TMT Steel Bars, Structural steel
like Plates, Flats, Angles, Tees, Beams,
Channels etc.
(i) Mechanical Testing : Mass per metre run,
    Tensile Strength, %age Elongation, 0.2% Proof
    Stress, Bend Test, Rebend test
(ii) Chemical Analysis (Carbon, sulphur, Phosphrous)
19. M.S. Tubular Pipes
IS: 1161
a) Tensile Strength, Yield Strength & % Elongation, Bend
    Test/Flatterning test, wt/m
b) Chemical Analysis
20. C.C. Cubes
Compressive Strength
21. Bricks/Brick tiles
(i) Water Absorption & Compressive Strength
(ii) Efflorescence
(iii) Dimension Test
22. Aggregates (Coarse & Fine)
(i) Grading/F.M.
(ii) Silt Content
(iii) Impact Value
    (iv) Crushing Value
(v) Abrasion Value
(vi) Specific Gravity
(vii) Water Absorption
(viii) Flakiness Index
(ix) Bulk density
    (x) Stripping Test
(xi) Soundness Test
(xii) Deleterious Material
(xiii) Organic Impurities
(xiv) Aggregate Alkali Reactivity
(xv) Ten Percent Fine Value
23. Cement
(i) Complete Physical Tests (Fineness, Initial & Final Setting
    Time, Specific Surface Area, Soundness, Compressive
    (ii) Complete Chemical Analysis.
24. Mix Design (Cement Concrete)
SP 23, IS:456,
M.O.R.T & H Specifications
Mix Design as per Field requirements
25. Lime Chemical Analysis
26. Cement Mortar/ Cement
(i) Chemical Analysis to determine the ratio by calcium oxide method
(ii) Chemical Analysis to determine the ratio by silica method
27. Non-Destructive Concrete Test
IS:13311 (Part-1)
(i) Hammer Rebound Test
(ii) Roof Deflection Test
28. Soil Tests (i) Particle size/Grain Size Analysis
(ii) Cu & CC Value
(iii) Atterberg Limits
(iv) D.B.D. of In-situ Soil by corecutter
(v) D.B.D. of Insitu soil by Sand Replacement method
    (vi) Standard Proctor Compaction Test (MDD & OMC Values)
(vii) Modified Proctor Compaction Test (MDD&OMC Values)
(viii) Lab. CBR under Unsoaked and Soaked Conditions
(ix) Field CBR
(x) All index & Engineering properties of soil for evaluation of bearing capacity
29. Bitumen Tests and Bituminous
(i) Penetration Test
(ii) Softening Point Test
(iii) Ductility Test
(iv) Specific Gravity
(v) Flash Point
(vi) Solubility
30. Bituminous Mix Design (As per
M.O.R.T &H Specifications 4th
(i) Marshall Test for Design of Dense B.M., Semi-dense & Asphaltic Concrete
(ii) Design of Mix Seal Surfacing
(iii) Density of Compacted Layer
(iv) Gradation of Aggregates
(v) Binder/Bitumen Content
31. Benkleman Beam Deflection
Test on Road Pavement
Benklemen Beam Test on road pavement for overlay design
32. Pavement Design on the basis
of CBR/Traffic data (IRC:37)
Collection of soil samples from site & lab tests including CBR and design of pavement
33. Water proofing compound IS:2645 Permeability test, setting time, compressive strength and water soluble Cholride content
34. Structural Granite
Specification for structural Granite
(i) Compressive Strength
(ii) Specific Gravity
(iii) Water Absorption
35. Bitumen Felt/Tar felt
(i) Pliability
(ii) Storage Sticking Test
(iii) Sheet Resistance
(iv) Water Absorption
(vi) % Bitumen Content